Indigenizing Classics: A Teaching Guide

Indigenizing Classics: A Teaching Guide

by Katherine Blouin, Aven McMaster, David Meban & Zachary Yuzwa

“Indigenization is a process of naturalizing Indigenous knowledge systems and making them evident to transform spaces, places, and hearts. In the context of post-secondary education, this involves bringing Indigenous knowledge and approaches together with Western knowledge systems… Indigenization does not mean changing something Western into something Indigenous. The goal is not to replace Western knowledge with Indigenous knowledge, and the goal is not to merge the two into one. Rather, Indigenization can be understood as weaving or braiding together two distinct knowledge systems so that learners can come to understand and appreciate both.”

Indigenization, Decolonization, and Reconciliation by Asma-na-hi Antoine, Rachel Mason, Roberta Mason, Sophia Palahicky, and Carmen Rodriguez de France, Pulling Together: A guide for Indigenization of post-secondary institutions

Indigenization is a process that is gaining more traction at Canadian schools, and rightfully so. While the 2015 Call to Action of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC) has generated a substantial amount of reckoning and initiatives in Canadian universities, in academia, and more broadly among settlers, much remains to be done. For as Eve Tuck rightly puts it, “Universities don’t become different just by wishing for it”.

This applies with even more acuteness to Classics and other Antiquity-related disciplines, where discussion on indigenization remain at an embryonic stage. We – David Meban, Aven McMaster, and Katherine Blouin – felt that it was a needed, and overdue, topic of conversation for the Classics community, so we decided to submit a panel entitled “Indigenization & Classical Studies” to the organizers of the 2019 annual meeting of the CAC, which took place May 6-9 2019 at McMaster University. Our panel was accepted, and the session took place on May 7th. The fact that it was attended by a large number of colleagues and students (the room was completely full!) testifies to the growing interest of Classicists in Canada, and we like to think also elsewhere on Turtle Island and beyond, to indigenize our teaching and research through processes of (un)learning. The same goes for the reception of Zachary Yuzwa’s talk entitled “Re-Writing the Roman Past: Identity and Exemplarity in the Latin Literature of New France”, which was given in another panel a day before ours. We are grateful to Zachary for also participating in the preparation of this post.

turtle-island-emojiChief Lady Bird, Turtle Island emoji (2018). Image: Chief Lady Bird, accessed on CBC

So what does indigenization have to do with Classics? And with Antiquity? And how can this process be respectfully and genuinely achieved?

We – as instructors, researchers, and as members of an association – experience some challenges and difficulties as we begin to contribute to the process of Indigenization. For instance:

  • How might we incorporate relevant content into a course on Roman history or Greek tragedy?
  • How can we make a respectful start when we have so few Indigenous people, and marginalized peoples in general, at the table?  Who can we partner and collaborate with?

Indeed, when David spoke with Emily Grafton, the Indigenization lead at the University of Regina, about the issues and complications of a white person, speaking to (largely) other white people about Indigenization, she remarked that a good place to begin is by asking the question of why are there so few Indigenous voices present? What have been the barriers to inclusion, and how can they be broken down?

Given the early stages of Indigenization in our field, and our shared interests, we thought a follow-up post offering some pedagogical cues and references would be a timely initiative. We thus hope that the present ‘starting guide’ might provide informative cues and constructive food for thoughts for colleagues and students who are also at the preliminary stages of this process, be it in their research or perhaps even more so in their teaching, for the latter is the area that calls most for change.

Students as Stakeholders: A Student-Driven Approach to Indigenization in Classical Studies (by David Meban)

I have learned a lot as I have started to try to Indigenize my teaching. Here are some key lessons I have learned (discussed in greater detail in my paper). I don’t share these as the most important issues, but simply as those which I found prompted a lot of thought, or which helped to clarify some of my own thinking.

1. Indigenization demands collaboration with indigenous peoples and communities

Reading through the calls to action of the TRC, for example, this is one thing that really stands out.   Whether for closing the educational gaps between indigenous and non-indigenous Canadians, or for the inclusion of residential school history in the educational system, what is stressed is collaboration.   To do otherwise would only further contribute to the marginalization of Indigenous peoples.


Norval Morrisseau, The Storyteller: The Artist and His Grandfather (1978) Image:

2. Who is your target audience?

In other words, for whom are we indigenizing?  If we are introducing new content, for example, to whom is this being directed? The target audience is often considered to be non-Indigenous students. But this perspective can reinforce the status quo, since it focuses on the learning experiences of non-Indigenous, rather than Indigenous, students. The work of Adam Gaudry has been very informative for me in this regard. As he states:

the comfort of non-Indigenous students cannot come at the expense of the hard-won space of Indigenous people in the academy…. [t]he conversation needs to prioritize the needs of the Indigenous student body—no matter how large or small—to avoid once again putting the needs of Canadians above those of Indigenous people. This would, again, reinforce all that we should be undoing.

So the needs of the Indigenous student body should be the priority.

3. Indigenization and outreach beyond the ‘Western’-style classroom

Third, questions about my target audience in turn prompted thoughts about Indigenization and outreach. In other words, to me Indigenization wasn’t simply about how I could introduce Indigenous content into my course, but how I could teach and introduce Classical material in a way that would be more effective and more accessible to those of my students who had not been raised or taught in a Western or “white” environment or classroom. In other words, how might I change my teaching to make it more accessible to those students more at home in Indigenous ways of knowing and being?


Birth of Erichtonios, red figure hydria. Image: British Museum

4. Beware of pan-Indigeneity

Fourth, my thinking about my audience and how to tailor my teaching for it, led me to realize that I must also strive to avoid another fault: pan-Indigeneity. I needed to avoid simplifying Canada’s Indigenous communities, needed to avoid reducing a diverse range of traditions and histories to one monolithic group. So here I was determined that if I was to change my teaching, adapt it for my students, I needed to do so within the local and provincial context. So, for example, I might rely on or incorporate more on the histories of the specific communities and nations within Saskatchewan; and if I wanted to talk about treaty history, then I wanted to be sure to connect it specifically to Treaty four history. This extends to my students within the province. There is a wide variety: some students who have left their reservation for the first time to study at the University of Regina, others who feel no connection at all to their history and culture (and who are perhaps looking to reconnect), and some who – in the case of my online courses – are still on a reservation in a remote area of the province. In changing my teaching, I realized that I needed to do so with this wide range of students and experiences in mind.

Sprung from the Earth: Some Thoughts on Indigeneity and the Ancient History Classroom (by Katherine Blouin)

1. The inclusion – and acknowledgement – of indigenous-inspired modes of knowledge production and transmission in the classroom and in assignments can be powerful tools of educational transformation. For instance, after having been initiated to the talking circle format by Lee Maracle during the Humanities Pedagogy Confronting Colonization workshop that took place at the University of Toronto in the Fall 2018, I have adopted it in my upper level undergraduate class later on that term, and I made it a point to explain to the students (a diverse group with no self-identified Turtle Islander) the origin of this circle and its aims. The positive results on the class dynamics and on student participation were immediate. I cannot imagine myself going back solely to the usual, Western style of discussion period anymore.

Talking Circle Medicine (2005)

Leah Dorion, Talking Circle (2006). Image: Leah Dorion’s website

2. Many ancient narratives (including ‘myths’) are actually indigenous stories whose rhythm and storytelling features cannot be fully understood solely through Western conceptions of what count as a narrative, a story, a protagonist, a “source”. What happens if we approach these stories through de-Eurocentrized lenses, and as story (re)told? On indigenous stories as shifting, living, knowledge-producing practices, see notably Lee Maracle‘s work (notably her recent Memory Serves: Oratories). See also the spring 2019 JHI workshop “The University and the Challenge of Indigenous Story“.


Abraham Anghik Ruben, Sedna and Raven. Image: Abraham Anghik Ruben’s website


Winged Isis and Osiris, Hellenistic mammisi, Temple of Philae, Egypt. Image: K.Blouin

3. What ancient indigenous stories and data are occluded from dominant narratives on the history of the ancient Mediterranean/’Classical’ world? How can we do better? I find A.L. Stoler’s concept of historical occlusion to be extremely helpful here, when it comes to both ancient evidence and historiography. See her 2016 book Duress. Imperial Durabilities in our Times. The early history of Alexandria and the Mareotide, which I have discussed elsewhere and discussed during my CAC talk, offers a great case of historical and historiographical occlusion (I am currently expanding the analysis in the context of my next monograph project). So are many common historical “tags”. Think of Caesar’s ‘conquest of the Gauls’ or ‘Gallic Wars’, for instance. How would an indigenized approach to this historical event complete the still dominant, hegemonic narrative?

4. How did ancient hegemonic conceptions of indigeneity and the reception of ‘Classical’ Antiquity impact colonial – including religious – practices and policies in (settler) colonies? And vice versa? For one, as I have written elsewhere in this blog, the very concept of “civilization” is intimately linked to this question, and so are current conversations on the Anthropocene. Books that might speak to Antiquity-scholars include Frederick H. Russell’s Just War in the Middle Age, Anthony Pagden’s The Fall of Natural Man. The American Indian and the Origins of Comparative Ethnology and Claude Corbo’s Jésuites québécois et le cours classique après 1945.


8f3428d62888f6cf1941e7310d7df57bTop: Lionel Royer, Vercingetorix jette ses armes aux pieds de Jules César (1899). Image: Wikipedia Bottom: Marc-Aurèle Suzor-Coté, Jacques Cartier rencontre les Indiens à Stadaconé, 1535 (1907). Image: MNBAQ

As far as studies by Classicists and other Antiquity-scholars are concerned, much remains to be done, especially when it comes to the particular context of Turtle Island and of other white settler colonies outside the Mediterranean and Near East. There is, though, ground for optimism, as Zachary Yuzwa’s CAC talk and a series of recent publications show. One can think of several articles published on Anabase (including Nicolas Faelli’s piece on ancient references among Founding Settlers Figures in 17th c. French America; see also his Ph.D. dissertation) as well of M. Bruchac’s 2017 blog post Encounters in the Cathedral: Revisiting the 1676 Huron-Wendat Wampum Belt at Chartres, France on the Penn Museum Blog, Mike Fontaine’s Aeneas in Palestine published in Eidolon, and the brand new Antipodean Antiquities. Classical Reception Down Under, edited by Marguerite Johnson. I should also mention some related studies, including Denise E. McCoskey’s Race: Antiquity and its Legacy, Phiroze Vasunia’s The Classics and Colonial India, Malcolm Reid’s “Cromer and the Classics: Imperialism, Nationalism and the Greco-Roman Past in Modern Egypt“, Barbara Goff’s edited volume Classics and Colonialism, and Diana Davis’ Resurrecting the Granaries of Rome.

A Case Study: Teaching the Aeneid on Colonized Land (by Aven McMaster)

My CAC talk focused on Indigenization and Classics in connection to the teaching of literature, and in particular the Aeneid. This paper grew from my experience last year teaching a class on Roman Epic in translation, and in particular the classes in which we discussed the second half of the Aeneid.


Ferdinand Bol, Aeneas at the Court of Latinus (1661-1663). Image: Wikipedia


The 1613 Two Row Wampum. Image: Wikipedia

Of course it is common to speak about that part of the story as a colonisation narrative, to talk about the interactions between the invading Trojans under Aeneas and the indigenous Italians led by Latinus and Turnus, and to discuss the resulting merger of the two peoples that results from Aeneas’s victory in the war with the Italians. But that discussion regularly takes place in the context of Mediterranean colonization and Roman imperial history; belatedly (and I acknowledge that it took me far too long to notice this, in part because it had been a while since I last taught the Aeneid) I realized some of the many ways this narrative resonates with the specific history of the place where I was teaching the poem. I had been for several years watching and thinking about my university’s responses to the TRC calls to action concerning higher education, and had been wondering what the place of my department and discipline could be within those responses. In particular, in my teaching of Classical literature, was there any way to reconcile the subject with the aims of indigenization? In thinking about the Aeneid, and talking to my class about my thoughts, I started to see some ways that I could perhaps work toward those goals. The central question guiding my approach was “How does the land that I am teaching on affect my teaching?”, and one key element that emerged as I thought about the Aeneid and the land I was on was the importance of treaties in the epic and in the history of Indigenous peoples (notably the 1613 Two Row Wampum – Gusweñta). You can access my full talk here and my handout here.

Latin literature and Jesuit missionaries in Nouvelle-France: Some reading suggestions (by Zachary Yuzwa)

Our understanding of the early contact period on Turtle Island has been defined by the writings of Jesuit missionaries (especially to New France) whose education, in fact whose entire world view, is permeated with classical learning and the cultural assumptions that undergird it. In this early modern period, Latin serves as a powerful—and polyvalent—cultural marker, not just of a particular learned discipline but of the imperial and colonizing interests its disciples ultimately serve. Though significant advances have been made because of the scholarship of indigenous and settler historians working with archeological evidence and with the oral and recorded histories of First Nations communities, nevertheless our historical narrative relies heavily on texts produced by and for Europeans deeply invested in the colonial project. Latin is more than just a linguistic tool in this context: it conditions the social logic of this encounter, and the consequences of this fact demand study, if we are to understand as fully as possible the experience of indigenous peoples of early Canada in the face of colonization.

Jesuit missionaries in New France produced a massive corpus of texts—in Latin, French and Italian—comprising reports and requests, queries and complaints, histories, hagiographies and sermons. Many such texts—though by no means all—have been collected and edited first by Thwaites and later by Campeau. The corpus logically includes all manner of works produced by Jesuit missionaries in New France and not just the official yearly reports (relations) sent by the head of each mission to the provincial superior in Paris.


John Henry Walker, Cover page of Relations des Jesuites en Canada (1855). Image: Musée McCord

These texts have been an essential witness for the study of early modern Canada. They document some of the earliest contacts between Europeans and the indigenous populations they encountered in the new world. They have been used by academic historians and First Nations peoples in Canada to reconstruct the social and cultural organization of historical indigenous communities and are fundamental to our understanding of this formative period in the European colonization of North America. (Campeau 1987; Trigger, 1976; Beaulieu, 1990; Grégoire 1998; Greer, 2000b, 2005; Blackburn, 2000; Podruchny & Labelle, 2011; Labelle 2013).


Page de titre. Père François du Creux, Historiae Canadensis seu Novae-Franciae… Image: Université de Lyon’s Interface Blog

But these texts are also highly rhetorical literary performances whose diverse aims and audiences produce a stunningly complex corpus. Historians have begun to acknowledge that the Jesuit Relations and related documents are discursive or rhetorical constructions adapted to the needs of author and audience (LaFleche 1989; Ferland 1992; Ouellet 1986, 1990, 1993; Blackburn 2000; Deslandres 2003; True 2007, 2015). It is essential for us to understand that this corpus does not comprise a series of documentary sources. Rather it functions as a fundamental tool in a colonizing process intent on the “production and manipulation of forms of knowledge” (Blackburn 2000, 9). The historical reconstruction of indigenous cultures in early Canada is dependent on a corpus of texts produced by authors whose cultural framework is defined by its interaction with classical literature (Haskell 2010).

Recent scholarship has shown the value of the study of Latin literature in other colonial contexts (Hardwick 2000; Rule 2005; Hardwick & Gillespie 2007; Hardwick & Stray 2008; Haskell and Ruys 2010; Golvers 2010, 2015; Laird 2015). Scholars have interrogated the ways in which early modern authors from China to Mexico to Ghana use the Roman past to reinforce contemporary imperialist impulses (Gilmore 2010; Laird 2010) but also the mechanisms by which Latin might give colonial subjects access to a discourse capable of producing emancipatory or subversive outcomes (Parker 2010).


Detail of Marc Lescarbot’s « Figure de la terre neuve, grande rivière de Canada, et côtes de l’océan en la Nouvelle France » (1609). Image: Wikipedia

More work remains to be done on classical receptions and Latin literature in early North America, but a number of scholars have made significant progress on this path. Jean-François Cottier has edited two volumes of Tangence on Latin literature in New France (Cottier 2010a, 2012a): À la recherche d’un signe oublié: Le patrimoine latin du Québec et sa culture classique  and Nova Gallia: Recherches sur les écrits latins de Nouvelle-France. There is lots of good work in both volumes (and both are freely available on Érudit) from a range of scholars. Cottier also published a piece with John Gallucci and Haijo Westra in the Oxford Handbook of Neo-Latin on Latin literature in early “North America”. It is more a survey of what little work has been done (and does not focus on classical receptions in particular), but it is still worth a read. There is also Marie-Christine Pioffet’s monograph, La Tentation de l’épopée, which argues for the influence of epic (including ancient epic poetry) on the literary composition of the Jesuit Relations. A more recent and useful piece, similar in emphasis to those published in Cottier’s volumes, is Barton (2019).


Barton, William. ‘The Georgics off the Canadian Coast: Marc Lescarbot’s Adieu à la Nouvelle-France (1609) and the Virgilian Tradition’, in: Freer, N. and Xinyue, B. (eds) Reflections and New Perspectives on Virgil’s Georgics, London: Bloomsbury (2019): 155–163.

Beaulieu, Alain. Convertir les Fils de Caïn; Jésuites et Amérindiennes Nomades en Nouvelle France, 1632‐1642. Montréal: Nuit Blanche Editeur, 1990.

Blackburn, Carole. Harvest of souls. The Jesuit Missions and Colonialism in North America 1632-1650. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2000.

Campeau, Lucien. La Mission des Jésuites chez les Hurons: 1634-1650. Roma: Institutum Historicum S.I., 1987.

Campeau, Lucien. Monumenta Novae Franciae. 9 vols. Roma: Monumenta Hist. Soc. Jesu, 1967-2003.

Cottier, Jean-François, ed. À la recherche d’un signe oublié: Le patrimoine latin du Québec et sa culture classique. Special issue. Tangence 92 (2010a).

Cottier, Jean-François. “Écrits latins en Nouvelle-France (1608-1763): premier état de la question.” Tangence 92 (2010b): 9–26.

——, ed. Nova Gallia: Recherches sur les écrits latins de Nouvelle-France. Special issue. Tangence 99 (2012a)

——. “Le latin comme outil de grammatisation des langues ‘sauvages’ en Nouvelle-France: à propos des notes du P. Louis André sur la langue algonquine outaouoise (introduction, édition du texte latin et traduction).” Tangence 99 (2012b): 99-122.

Cottier, Jean-François, Haijo Westra and John Gallucci. “North America.” In The Oxford Handbook of Neo-Latin. Edited by Sarah Knight and Stefan Tilg. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Deslandres, Dominique. Croire et Faire Croire: les Missions Françaises au XVIIe Siècle. Paris: Fayard, 2003.

Gallucci, John A. “Latin terms and periphrases for Native Americans in the Jesuit Relations.” In Latinity and Alterity in the Early Modern Period. Edited by Y. Haskell and J.F. Ruys. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010.

——. “Décrire les ‘Sauvages’: réflexion sur les manières de désigner les autochtones dans le latin des Relations 1.” Tangence 99 (2012): 19–34.

Gilmore, John. “Sub herili venditur Hasta”: An Early Eighteenth-Century Justification of the Slave Trade by a Colonial Poet.” In Latinity and Alterity in the Early Modern Period. Edited by Y. Haskell and J.F. Ruys. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010.

Golvers, Noël. “From Propertius’s ‘Laudes Italiae (Romae)’ to 17-th century Jesuit ‘Laus Sinarum’: A New Aspect of Propertius’s Reception.” Humanistica Lovaniensia 59 (January 2010): 213-221.

——. “Asia.” In The Oxford Handbook of Neo-Latin. Edited by Sarah Knight and Stefan Tilg. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Greer, Allan. The Jesuit Relations. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2000a.

Greer, Allan. “Gender, Race, and Hagiography in New France.” The William and Mary Quarterly 57, no. 2 (Apr., 2000b): 323-348.

Hardwick, Lorna. Translating Words, Translating Cultures. London: Duckworth, 2000.

Hardwick, Lorna and Carol Gillespie, eds. Classics in Post-colonial Worlds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Hardwick, Lorna and Christopher Stray, eds. A Companion to Classical Receptions. Oxford: Blackwell, 2008.

Haskell, Yasmin and J.F. Ruys, eds. Latinity and Alterity in the Early Modern Period. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010.

Haskell, Yasmine. “Practicing What They Preach? Vergil and the Jesuits.” In A Companion to Vergil’s Aeneid and its Tradition: Medieval and Renaissance Receptions (Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2010): 203-16.

Labelle, Kathryn Magee. Dispersed but not Destroyed: A History of the Seventeenth-Century Wendat People. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2013.

Laflèche, Guy. Les Saints Martyrs Canadiens: Histoire du Mythe. Laval: Singulier, 1989.

Laird, Andrew. “Latin in Cuauhtémoc’s Shadow: Humanism and the Politics of Language in Mexico after the Conquest.” In Latinity and Alterity in the Early Modern Period. Edited by Y. Haskell and J.F. Ruys. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010.

Laird, A. “Colonial Spanish America and Brazil.” In The Oxford Handbook of Neo-Latin. Edited by Sarah Knight and Stefan Tilg. Oxford: OUP, 2015).

Martindale, Charles and Richard F. Thomas, eds. Classics and the Uses of Reception. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006.

O’Brien “La Franciade de Le Brun : poétique ovidienne de l’exil en Nouvelle-France.” Tangence 99 (2012): 35-60.

Ouellet, Réal. “Le Discours Fragmenté de la Relation de Voyage en Nouvelle France.” Saggi e Ricerchi di Letteratura Francese 25 (1986): 178-99.

Ouellet, Réal. “Le Paratexte Liminaire de la Relation: le Voyage en Amérique.” Cahiers de lʹAssociation Internationale des Etudes Françaises 42 (1990): 177‐192.

Ouellet, Réal, ed. Rhétorique et Conquête Missionnaire: le Jésuite Paul Lejeune. Sillery: Septentrion, 1993.

Parker, Grant. “Can the subaltern speak? The case of Capitein.” In Latinity and Alterity in the Early Modern Period. Edited by Y. Haskell and J.F. Ruys. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010.

Pioffet, Marie‐Christine. La Tentation de lʹépopée dans les Relations des Jésuites. Sillery: Septentrion, 1997.

Podruchny, Carolyn and Kathryn Magee Labelle. “Jean de Brébeuf and the Wendat Voices of Seventeenth-Century New France.” Renaissance and Reformation 34, no.1/2 (Jan. 2011): 97-126.

Thwaites, Reuben Gold. Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610-1791. Cleveland: Burrows Brothers: 1896-1901.

Trigger, Bruce. Children of Aataentsic: A History of the Huron People to 1600. 2 vols. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1976.

True, Micah. “Retelling Genesis: The Jesuit Relations and the Wendat Creation Myth.” Papers on French Seventeenth Century Literature 34, no. 67 (2007): 465‐484.

——. Masters and Students: Jesuit Mission Ethnography in Seventeenth-Century New France. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2015.

Westra, Haijo. “Références classiques implicites et explicites dans les écrits des Jésuites sur la Nouvelle-France 1.” Tangence 92 (2010): 27–37.

Et pour terminer: More Useful References! (mostly from David Meban, with some additions from the rest of us)

  • Battell Lowman, E., & Barker, A. J. (2015). Chapter 3: It’s Always about the Land. In Settler: Identity and Colonialism in 21st Century Canada (pp. 48-68). Winnipeg, Man.: Fernwood.
  • Berry, K. (2007). Exploring the Authority of Whiteness in Education. In R. Carr & D. Lund (Eds.),The Great White North? (pp. 19-32). Rotterdam: Sense.
  • Dunne, E. and Zandstra, R. (2011) Students as change agents. Bristol: ESCalate.
  • Engaging Stakeholders in the Creation of Self-Studies and New Program Development,” in the Quality Insurance Guide produced by the Ontario Universities Council on Quality Assurance.
  • Frideres, J. (2011). Indigenous Ways of Knowing. In First Nations in the Twenty-First Century (pp. 47-64). Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press.
  • Gaudry, Adam, and Danielle Lorenz. (2018). “Indigenization as Inclusion, Reconciliation, and Decolonization: Navigating the Different Visions for Indigenizing the Canadian Academy.” AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples 14, no. 3 (September 2018): 218– 27.
  • Gaudry, A. (2016).  Paved with Good Intentions: Simply Requiring Indigenous Content is not Enough. Active History.  Retrieved from
  • Gaudry, A. and Lorenz, D. (2018). Decolonization for the Masses?  Grappling with Indigenous Content Requirements in the Changing Post-Secondary Environment.    In E. Tuck, K. W. Yang, and L. T. Smith (Eds.), Indigenous and Decolonizing Studies in Education (pp. 159-174).  London: England: Routledge.
  • Henry, F., Dua, E., James, C.E., Kobayashi, A., Li, P., Ramos, H., and Smith, M.S. 2017. The Equity Myth. Racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian Universities.
  • Kuokkanen, R. 2007. “From Cultural Conflicts to Epistemic Ignorance.” In Reshaping the University: Responsibilities, Indigenous Epistemes and the Logic of the Gift, 49-73. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
  • Maracle, L. (2017). My Conversations with Canadians. Book*Hug Press.
  • Marshall, A. (2017). Two-Eyed Seeing – Elder Albert Marshall’s Guiding Principle for Inter-Cultural Collaboration
  • McKoy, K., Tuck, E., McKenzie, M. (2016). Land Education Rethinking Pedagogies of Place from Indigenous, Postcolonial, and Decolonizing Perspectives, 1st Edition. New York: Routledge.
  • Mihesuah, D.A. and Wilson, A. (Eds).  (2004). Indigenizing the academy:  Transforming Scholarship and Empowering Communities.  Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Pete, S. (2016) 100 Ways: Indigenizing and decolonizing academic programs.  Aboriginal Policy Studies, 6, 81-89.
  • Smith, J., Puckett, C., & Simon, W. (2015). Indigenous Allyship: An Overview. Waterloo, Ont.: Office of Aboriginal Initiatives, Wilfred Laurier University. Retrieved from
  • Stonechild, B. (2006). Indian Higher Education and Integration. In The New Buffalo: The Struggle for Post-Secondary Education in Canada(pp. 31-43). Winnipeg, Man.: University of Manitoba Press.
  • Denis, V. (2007). Aboriginal education and anti-racist education: Building alliances across cultural and racial identity. Canadian Journal of Education30(4), 1068-1092.
  • Tuck, E. and Wayne Yang, K. (2012). “Decolonization in not a Metaphor“, Decolonization1.
  • Veracini, L. (2015). Chapter 2: Settlers are not Migrants. In TheSettler Colonial Present (pp. 32-48). New York, N.Y.: Palgrave McMillian
  • Veracini, L. (2010). Narratives. In Settler Colonialism: A theoretical overview(pp. 95-116). New York, N.Y.: Palgrave McMillian.
  • Vowel, C. (2016). Indigenous writes: A guide to First Nations, Métis, and Inuit issues in Canada.Winnipeg, Man.: Highwater Press.


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